you were probably Memory and desire, stirring . Memory and desire, stirring / Sighs, short and infrequent were exhaled,” lines 63-4). It is possible to describe "The Waste Land" as a modern poem simply because it was written in the twentieth century. The soil out of which the spring plants grow is composed of the decayed leaves of earlier plants. For Eliot’s speaker, this rebirth is cruel, because any birth reminds him of death. Instead of a life-giving act of love, sex occurs in the poem as seduction or rape, leading to abortion. Eliot's enormously long poem does not fit any traditional structure, and in doing so, Eliot set the standard for modern poetry. Eliot defined the lyric as “the voice of the poet talking to himself, or to nobody,” and if we accept his description of The Waste Land as a “piece of rhythmical grumbling,” it may seem to belong to the lyric tradition. Other quotations or translations come from writers of near-sacred status: Shakespeare (“Those are pearls that were his eyes,” line 48) and Dante (“I had not thought death had undone so many. For Eliot’s speaker, April’s showers are cruel, not sweet. Eliot went on to convert to a High Church form of Anglicanism, become a naturalized British subject, and turn to conservative politics. The Waste Land was quickly recognized as a major statement of modernist poetics, both for its broad symbolic significance and for Eliot’s masterful use of formal techniques that earlier modernists had only begun to attempt. Eliot’s age itself was symbolic of an entry into mid-life. Speak.” These comments alternate with lines, not in quotation marks, that may be spoken or thought by her male companion: “I think we are in rats’ alley / Where the dead men lost their bones.” The ominous tone of these replies suggests, however, that the words may issue from some supernatural source.

˲��ފpW�bP��k�6@>���m��DZThǎ�š�dQbH�����6R(iU����@�j�kUBψ�Z�Y����s��NC��t�Rh����>���U��>�2��|��}v�����ȥ��y��W={xl��E�gݪN���b^=lD���ղ9;[��91ƣ.�� ܢ��Z���]��F\���ϫE��u�բ�P8�����j~��5ꯚu��=f���������#'e���泻��ü2�j���6���T�\py={jV��[�D��C�"�)c��qy���-�����r3K����9���+��ўO����*NQ�dW?�7����G��%�����qs���(#EQ�#L8;��>|Ta(q(�L�=-��d�ɭ���)��aK}����—8��+�n��3���؎�-XP���1t2,��0�|��Ok��ӡSqP_�n1�Z7�0?��ε�jz�%��.�&�t;9���c0CǝT=H�Y��i@�L�@c���mj ��یi����lŰC�K:AL &��h ��YJ��@�������. Eliot’s divergences from traditional meters, then, were meant to achieve particular poetic effects rather than simply to shock. After all, this was the expression of some sort of belief; it had candor, it had conviction, it had a vibrating note of revolt in its whisper, it had the appalling face of a glimpsed truth—the strange commingling of desire and hate.” The capacity to judge a civilization that teeters on the edge of chaos was highly prized by Eliot, as it was by Pound, Whose Cantos shares some of the features of The Waste Land, and by the other modernists who attempted their own epics.[1]. We could not call "The Waste Land" a narrative or story in the traditional sense. Born in St. Louis, Eliot had studied at Harvard, the Sorbonne, and Oxford before moving to London, where he completed his doctoral dissertation on the philosopher F. H. Bradley. "The Waste Land" is a modern poem and also a Modernist one. Allusions are an interesting feature of modernist literary works because the modernists believed in Ezra Pound's motto "make it new." Eliot inherits from the symbolists a concern with private, esoteric meanings, but he adds a structure of notes in order to make some of those meanings accessible to his readers. And no rock Eliot’s frequent adaptation of lines from other poets, such as Shakespeare, Edmund Spenser, John Webster, and Andrew Marvell, often reinforces this tendency to revert to the standard meter of English long poems, for example in the opening lines of the second section, “A Game of Chess.” Indeed Pound criticized these passages as “too penty,” that is, too close to iambic pentameter, or as Pound also put it, “too tum-pum at a stretch.” In addition to the many lines clearly written in blank verse, Eliot uses various rhyme schemes, often to comic effect. Eliot uses quatrains (rhyming units of four lines) to describe the tryst. Chaucer drew on this same mythological structure in the Canterbury Tales: his pilgrims are headed to Canterbury, “the holy, blissful martyr for to seek, / He who hath helped them when they were sick.” Eliot would later write a play, Murder in the Cathedral (1935), about the death of Thomas à Becket, Chaucer’s “holy, blissful martyr.” Spring, the season of rebirth, is also a season for celebrating martyrs, and Eliot’s speaker seems to align himself with such martyrs as Christ, Becket, Lincoln, Brooke, and the war dead.

Here, the first two lines seem to be made up entirely of stressed syllables, although they tend to fall into groups of three. The Fisher King is impotent, his lands infertile and drought-stricken; one cause of this infertility is a crime, the rape of some maidens in the King’s court. Eliot's The Waste Land: Breaking the rules or conventions of more traditional, accepted forms of poetry: The Waste Land veers in and out of different languages (German, French, even Hindi, to name a few) and obscure mythological references without clear focus or easily defined theme, without defined meter or form.



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