Microtubules are arranged as apico-basal arrays that form a cage surrounding the nucleus (see Box 1) (Xie et al., 2007). Therefore, pseudostratified columnar epithelium is a falsely striated tissue (and therefore, a single layer of cells) composed of columnar-shaped cells that line an organ or cavity space. Surprisingly, given the overall importance of this widespread and diverse tissue type, we are still only beginning to assess their biology and significance for developmental programs. In particular, organoids that give rise to different brain structures are originally pseudostratified, including the neural tube, retinal and cerebral organoids, thus reflecting the in vivo situation (Eiraku et al., 2011; Lancaster et al., 2013; Ranga et al., 2016). In contrast to other epithelia, PSE do not fulfil any obvious barrier functions, but instead are highly proliferative tissues and can often be seen as organ precursors. Stratified epithelia have two or more layers of cells, while simple epithelia have only one layer. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd. As such divisions bisect the apical membranes, correct cleavage angles could be important for the distribution of apical components into the two daughter cells. The nuclei of these cells are placed roughly in the middle of the cell. The nuclei of these epithelial cells are at different levels leading to the illusion of being stratified. In addition, in PSE of the Drosophila wing disc, apical IKNM is still observed when centrosomes are genetically depleted (Poulton et al., 2014). The epithelial cells are anchored to the underlying organ by a fibrous sheet called the basal lamina, or basement membrane. They also line internal organs. Pseudostratified epithelium specializes in secretion and absorption. So far, however, this idea is purely speculative. Pseudostratified columnar epithelium is located in the trachea, upper respiratory tract, and in the male reproductive system, particularly in the vas deferens and epididymis. While the cell biology of the apical process is well defined (see poster), much less is known about the composition of the basal process, which is linked to the basal lamina through integrin-based focal adhesion complexes (Stuermer and Bastmeyer, 2000). In addition to their differences in length and nuclear layer arrangements, PSE can also vary in their overall shape and architecture. In stratified epithelium, only the bottom cells have a basal surface and only the top cells have an apical surface. Alongside an increase in epithelial height, the number of nuclear layers stacked within a PSE also increases and, concurrently, so does the distance the nuclei have to travel to reach apical positions before mitosis (also see the images on the poster). Finally, in the very elongated radial glia cells of the neocortex, in which nuclei have to move up to ten times, or even more, their own length to reach apical positions, microtubules and their associated motors are actively involved in apical nuclear movement before mitosis (see poster). In contrast, in the short and intermediate PSE investigated so far, microtubules do not appear to be the main driver of apical IKNM (Norden et al., 2009; Meyer et al., 2011) and rather have a supportive role, such as in the Nematostella ectoderm (Meyer et al., 2011). Insufficiency or too much of a particular element or compound, such .. The finding that myosin and actin follow the nucleus as it moves apically underlines this notion (Meyer et al., 2011; Norden et al., 2009). For example, it would be very exciting to test how nuclei are moved in a tissue that increases its height and packing state over development. It is rare that the cells that make it up are cuboidal or squamous in shape. This gives radial glia cells a ‘bead on a string’ appearance. In the retinal neuroepithelium, however, a perpendicular cleavage plane is not absolutely necessary for cells to re-integrate into the tissue (Dzafic et al., 2015; Strzyz et al., 2015). However, here, the cytoskeletal arrangements involved have not yet been explored. It is made up of one or more layers of cells closely packed together. For a brief discussion of the role of microtubules in these tissues, see Box 1. It is primarily involved in protecting the underlying structures, secretion, regulation, and absorption. Consequently, cells are less columnar and become more spindle shaped (see poster). Pseudostratified epithelium is a type of epithelial tissue that at first glance appears to be stratified, but is actually only a single layer of cells. Another hypothesis has suggested an apical ‘mitotic zone’ is present in the very elongated rodent neocortex PSE. Most pseudostratified epithelia also have cilia, or fingerlike projections, on the apical surface. It has been shown that dynein serves as an apically-directed motor and the plus-end-directed kinesin motor Kif1A moves nuclei basally in the rodent neocortex (Tsai et al., 2010). One particular case of an extended PSE is the PSE of mammalian neocortices that consist of radial glia cells (see poster). Pseudostratified epithelial tissue typically, but not always, has goblet cells, which secrete mucin to produce mucus. Editor-in-Chief Michael Way discusses all things lipids in a new Editorial that introduces the journal’s sixth special issue, Cell Biology of Lipids. Although apical nuclear movement still takes place in Drosophila wing disk and zebrafish retinal neuroepithelium upon microtubule depolymerisation (Meyer et al., 2011; Norden et al., 2009), it should be noted that, at least in the zebrafish neuroepithelium, additional microtubule destabilization upon actomyosin interference increased the effect on apical IKNM (Norden et al., 2009).

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