If the conclusions are unsatisfactory, it is because they are rooted in an unsatisfactory theory.

While women do make up the majority of domestic violence victims, domestic abuse can and does happen to men as well.

An increasingly familiar view is that oppression is locked into capitalism through the actions of men themselves.

Far more men than women are homeless, on death row, killed on the job, and killed in military service.

Culture is a biological strategy to disseminate wisdom that helps groups to survive in a world that is often hostile to this end.

Things go wrong. The same is true of protective legislation. The problem with placing patriarchy simply in the realm of ideas is that it doesn’t explain where the ideas come from.

The concept of the patriarchy has an intuitive appeal that meshes well with our folk reasoning: when we see that one group of humans has markedly better average outcomes than a separate group of humans, it is common to assume foul play. Toxic Masculinity. Male handloom weavers at home were undercut by factory production, which was performed by women and children.

Similarly to sexual assault, domestic violence is assumed to be a female concern. This information quickly spread among this group of monkeys through observation and imitation; by the next generation, all newly-mannered young monkeys washed their food before consumption, despite the fact that they never saw the original monkey make the discovery. Even today, stay-at-home dads are seen as weak for "letting" their wives be the breadwinners.

The family, supported by the family wage, thus allows the control of women’s labour by men both within and without the family.”.

The family had suffered the ravages of industrialisation and was virtually in danger of dying out by the 1840s.

So feminists argue that the fight against patriarchy cannot be part of the struggle for socialism (against class society). As the authors of the study point out, men who don't see themselves as masculine are more likely to harass and act aggressively toward women and gay men. In fact, research has shown that men whose wives take home the primary income are more likely to be dissatisfied with their lives, all thanks to a culture that sees childcare as a feminine activity. This is true of clothes making, baking and brewing, which are now usually only performed in the home as hobbies. A wage to cover the costs of reproduction of the whole family rather than just that of the individual wage earner was regarded as preferable to a situation where all members of the family worked. Rape Culture.

Therefore, domestic labour in the home is not performed to service individual men but to contribute indirectly to the production of surplus value for the capitalist.

As impossible and damaging as societal standards for women are, the standards for men are just as poisonous: From birth, men are discouraged from showing emotion, which is seen as a feminine attribute — boys don't cry, right? Fancy that! Patriarchy is a system created by and for men at the direct expense of women. They therefore attempt a materialist analysis of why women’s oppression endures despite changes from one mode of production to another.

But the defence of the working class family clearly had its limitations, and these limitations acted to the detriment of women. Married women have been a growing section of the female labour market. Even the demand for a family wage was explicable in these terms.

The unfalsifiable (and unscientific) story of patriarchy is laden with emotional appeal and unnecessarily combative rhetoric; for this reason, it is more effective as a motivating force than a descriptive model.

As much as men may benefit from patriarchal societies on the surface, it's clear that the disadvantages far outweigh the advantages. Women in coal mines were not in direct competition with men because they did different jobs. This is the material basis for the family and so for women’s oppression. To find them, all you have to do is look. Sometimes they use patriarchy to describe male chauvinist ideas. This definition is not based on any material factors, but simply on forms of false consciousness. Defence of working conditions is a much more likely explanation than patriarchy. It can be explained by the fact that entry of women into traditional trades was very often accompanied by a worsening of conditions and reduction in wages. Women were protected, then treated as children, then as property. This is to say nothing of the laws and norms that forcibly prevented women from participation in the full array of human opportunities. Men also had protective legislation which excluded women and children from certain sorts of work and secured the granting of a family wage which ensured that the woman would be dependent on the man. There is no logical or reasonable way to deny that we live in a society that perpetuates … While women are slut-shamed at every opportunity, men are encouraged to bang everyone in sight, often whether that person is consenting or not. 113, October 1988. The main disadvantage of matriarchy is that it’s almost bound to create a patriarchy in the long run. Both oppression and exploitation, work and the family, are created not by patriarchy but by the demands of the capitalist system itself. Pay for bookbinders in the mid-nineteenth century for example, was lower in Edinburgh where women had undercut the rates than anywhere else in Britain.

The material base of patriarchy is men’s control over women’s labour power. These monkeys had established a culture. In retrospect, I see that I was so captivated by the dazzling images that mockingly towered above the imaginary limits I imposed on my dreams that I forgot to look down at gender composition of the poor creatures that reside lower down the social totem pole. Of course, the majority of the ways the patriarchy affects men are beneficial, from the lack of laws policing their bodies to their setting as the "default" gender. Just as class oppression preceded capitalism so does our oppression.” Scarlet Women. Both fit quite neatly with reformist ideas. It is structured through the family, which ensures that women work for lower wages, that they are the bulk of part time workers, and that they still have the major responsibility for childcare. It is inconceivable that such social transformations could take place without there also being fundamental changes in the family itself. Like men, they sell their labour power on the market. Sheila Rowbotham argues in Woman’s Consciousness, Man’s World, that labour within the family is in fact a “mode within a mode” of production, and that the wife’s relationship to her husband under capitalism is comparable to that of the bondsman and his master in feudal society.
Transcribed by Christian Høgsbjerg.

All rights reserved.

If we are to have any hope of changing social structures, it is imperative that we first turn a dispassionate eye to understanding the logic of the mechanics of the system in question. Women are wage workers and their work is not under the patriarchal control of their husbands. We still have a long way to go, but if we work together, perhaps we'll find ourselves in a society that doesn't discourage men from showing emotion or shame women for doing so. Furthermore, research has shown that fear of being seen as "weak" is so deeply ingrained that they drastically overcompensate when they feel threatened. Sally Alexander locates it in another way, by saying that the pre-capitalist division of labour within the family is transferred onto the capitalist labour market. This explanation lies in the existence of a system running parallel to various forms of class society, the system of patriarchy. This discrimination is brought about by a patriarchal alliance between male workers and capital. Most families which have to exist on the man’s wages alone are among the poorest.

The list should be familiar to everyone by this point, but let’s review the score: on average, men make more money than women, occupy more positions of high authority than women, and own more property than women.
Women face a different reproductive dilemma.

The growth of a number of peripheral industries round the Lancashire cotton industry to service working women, from child-minding to pudding making, further strengthened the case. unhealthy coping mechanisms such as alcohol abuse, drastically overcompensate when they feel threatened.

The reasons for this are entirely understandable. Additionally, women’s risk preferences tend to be lower than men’s since they must consider the well-being of their children as the primary caregiver. Even when people do admit that male rape occurs, it's often played for laughs: Prison rape jokes, congratulating him on getting "laid," etc.


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