Deformation of the specimen results in a new speckle pattern. Those movements indicate displacements of the speckle pattern as well. All statistical tests were carried out using the software package IBM SPSS Statistics 21. For producing the samples out of these elements, a CNC and a conventional planning and a milling machine were used. Pronounced strain hardening was observed for most NWs in our study. A laser source radiates a beam, which is projected on the surface of the specimen. Volume fraction of the human hair fiber is varied by fixing the fibre length at 20 mm and tensile tests were conducted as per the standards. Springer, Jones R, Wykes C (1989) Holographic and speckle interferometry. Comparing test results from the front and the back side indicated immediately biased data.

Accessed 27 Aug 2017, Davis JR (2004) Tensile testing. Essentially, it is the measurement of the change in volume of a material during deformation. In materials science and solid mechanics, Poisson's ratio ν {\displaystyle \nu } is a measure of the Poisson effect, the deformation of a material in directions perpendicular to the direction of loading.
In this study, three optical gauging techniques (electronic speckle pattern interferometry (ESPI), laser and video extensometry) and one mechanical gauging technique were used to establish the six Poisson’s ratio of spruce wood (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) Beijing Natural Sciences Foundation (under grant 3072007), University, Chinese Ministry of Education(NCET, the State Key Laboratory of Explosion Science and T. nanoindentation and SEM." \kern-0pt} {E_{\text{T}} }}} & 0 & 0 & 0 \\ { - {{\nu_{\text{LR}} } \mathord{\left/ {\vphantom {{\nu_{\text{LR}} } {E_{\text{L}} }}} \right. Mechanisms for the observed results are discussed. Optical gauging techniques may further offer the possibility to establish the Poisson’s ratio lamina-wise. A free clamping length of 350 mm (for the dog-bone-shaped specimen Fig. A clear advantage is that all components of the stiffness tensor are established with the same specimen by employing a consistent method. Wiley, Chichester, Samarasinghe S, Kulasiri D (2004) Stress intensity factor of wood from crack-tip displacement fields obtained from digital image processing., Müller U, Ringhofer A, Brandner R, Schickhofer G (2015) Homogeneous shear stress field of wood in an Arcan shear test configuration measured by means of electronic speckle pattern interferometry: description of the test setup. In these experiments, the configuratio, displacement of movable clamp can be calculated by DIC, Figure 2 The Human hair specimen attached, The transverse strain is measured by AIC m, filament can be determined by the definition formula. The video extensometry method is based on capturing ongoing images of the specimen, for example, during a tensile test by using a digital video camera. Measures for achieving high accuracy deformation measurement using the 2D DIC technique are also recommended. Three-dimensional ODM requires high-resolution cameras and a high level of expertise in material characterization, due to the need of the mathematical implementation of the procedure to establish consistent measurements (Majano-Majano et al., Chu TC, Ranson WF, Sutton MA (1985) Applications of digital-image-correlation techniques to experimental mechanics. More comprehensive information about the ESPI technique is available in other studies (Gingerl 1998; Rastogi et al. By subtracting the new speckle pattern from the reference pattern, an illustration with typical fringe pattern is obtained (Jones and Wykes 1989). As expected, the Wilcoxon test also indicates for all comparisons no statistically significant differences (all p ≥ .05). EP 0 629 835 B1.

Measurement 16:139–148. Dissertation, Leibniz Universität Hannover (in German), Xavier J, Avril S, Pierron F, Morais J (2007) Novel experimental approach for longitudinal-radial stiffness characterisation of clear wood by a single test. It was found that Poisson’s ratio of thin films with a thickness of several hundred nanometers can be determined from Δσf/ΔT, Δd/dΔT, reduced modulus Er of the film, and from the thermal expansion coefficient αs of the substrate. Additional material data (for example strain distribution) can be gained from the deformation map through post-processing. By comparing the mechanical properties, hair, it can be seen that the water solution treated ones appears to have the highest young’s modulus, followed by acid, The work is supported by the National Basic Research Program of China th, National Natural Science Foundation of China (under grants 10625. All rights reserved. 1995; Pan et al. This applies in particular to wood with low density.

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