He married Augusta of Saxe-Gotha-Altenborg, but … Frederick Louis, Prince of Wales (1 February 1707 – 31 March 1751) was heir apparent to the British throne from 1727 until his death. [4], The prince's popularity rose so high that it threatened his father. [24], The Oxford Dictionary of National Biography refers to a mourning song in memory of Prince Henry by John Ward remaining unpublished during the composer's lifetime;[25] however, a "newly composed" song on the same subject was included in his First Set of Madrigals (1613). The ceremony of investiture was celebrated with a pageant London's Love to Prince Henry, and a masque Tethys' Festival during which his mother gave a sword encrusted with diamonds, intended to represent justice.[17]. The reason she had wanted to be there was to make quite sure that the new arrival actually was Augusta’s child. [5], In 1596 Queen Elizabeth, via the Earl of Essex and his secretary Anthony Bacon, sent her miniature portrait by Nicholas Hilliard to Prince Henry, and this was received by the Earl of Mar at Stirling. He returned to Leicester House in Leicester Square and three doctors were called and bled him. Henry's baptism on 30 August 1594 was celebrated with complex theatrical entertainments written by poet William Fowler and a ceremony in a new Chapel Royal at Stirling purpose-built by William Schaw. The post mortem gave the cause of death as suffocation after the ‘imposthume’ or abscess broke, but the general medical opinion was that he died of pneumonia. Open-handed, with an easy manner, he had a certain charm and a taste for sport, gambling and women, and though his command of English was uncertain and he looked like a frog, the English on the whole approved of him. [11] Henry also played tennis, and in July 1606 played with his uncle Christian IV of Denmark at Greenwich Palace. He also disapproved of the way his father conducted the royal court, disliked Robert Carr, a favourite of his father, and esteemed Sir Walter Raleigh, wishing him to be released from the Tower of London. Frederick had numerous children and was a much better father to them than his own father had been to him. [14] Henry's titles of Duke of Cornwall and Duke of Rothesay passed to Charles, who until then had lived in Henry's shadow. [7], James became King of England in 1603 at the Union of the Crowns and his family moved south. Copyright © Historic UK Ltd. Company Registered in England No. Unfortunately his mother and father, George II and Queen Caroline, hated Fred. But since it is Fred who was alive and is dead, (Price borrowed from John Donne's unrelated The first Anniversary, published in 1611, and The second Anniversary, published in 1612, for some of his language and ideas.):[22]. We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. A very English way to die! He was buried in Westminster Abbey, in the Henry VII Chapel, with a minimum of ceremony and without a single member of the royal family present. Frederick was the eldest son of George II and became Prince of Wales in 1729. When his wife, Augusta of Saxe-Gotha, was about to bear their first child in 1737, Frederick insulted his mother by making sure that she was not present at the birth. How Frederick Louis, the eldest son of George II and Queen Caroline, came to meet his death, a few weeks after his forty-fourth birthday, is not quite certain. Most of the hunting party then followed the son. Fritze, Ronald H. and William B. Robison. His death left his eldest son, the future George III, as heir to the throne. By continuing to browse the site you are agreeing to our use of cookies. Among his activities, he was responsible for the reassignment of Sir Thomas Dale to the Virginia Company of London's struggling colony in North America. Richard Cavendish marks the somewhat mysterious death of a Georgian prince, on March 20th, 1751. [14] In addition to the alms box to which Henry forced swearers to contribute, he made sure his household attended church services. [8] Henry was lodged at Oatlands and Nonsuch Palace, and was relocated to Winchester during an outbreak of plague. [6] George Lauder was one of his tutors. When in 1737 Queen Caroline lay dying, George refused to let Fretz say goodbye to his mother, and Caroline was said to be very thankful. [10], In 1606 the French ambassador Antoine le Fèvre de la Boderie noted that Prince Henry (in England) played golf, which he described as a Scottish game not unlike "pallemail" or pall-mall. ’On another occasion, catching sight of the prince from a window, she said, ‘I wish the ground would open this moment and sink the monster to the lowest hole in hell.’ She and his father both preferred Frederick’s younger brother, the ‘Butcher’ Duke of Cumberland. What the root of the antipathy really was, no one has ever been able to establish, but Frederick’s father, the king, could seldom bring himself to speak to him and told people that the prince was a changeling and no true child of his. On 7 December, over a thousand people walked in the mile-long cortège to Westminster Abbey to hear a two-hour sermon delivered by George Abbot, the Archbishop of Canterbury. Interested in the arts, he collected pictures, wrote songs and poetry, played the cello well and loved music. Not a case of ‘motherly love’ then! Subsequently the prince, in his garden at Kew on a cold March day, caught a chill which turned to pleurisy. There is no more to be said! [9], Henry's tutor Adam Newton continued to serve the Prince, and several Scottish servants from the Stirling household were retained, including the poet David Murray. [28], For other people known as Henry, Prince of Wales, see, Literature and music occasioned by the prince's death. [26], Henry Frederick as Prince of Wales bore the arms of the kingdom, differenced by a label argent of three points. (The diagnosis can be made with reasonable certainty from written records of the post-mortem examination, which was ordered to be carried out in order to dispel rumours of poisoning. [18] Henry took an interest in the Kingdom of Ireland and was known to be supportive of the idea of a reconciliation with the former rebel Hugh O'Neill, Earl of Tyrone, who had fled into exile during the Flight of the Earls. His name derives from his grandfathers: Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley, and Frederick II of Denmark. As a young man, Henry showed great promise and was beginning to be active in leadership matters. However, at the age of 18, he predeceased his father when he died of typhoid fever. ‘My God’, she said, ‘popularity always makes me sick, but Fretz’s popularity makes me vomit’. Courtiers like Lord Hervey diligently stirred the boiling pot and every possible occasion for a flaming row seems to have been eagerly seized by all parties.The prince’s demands for more money and his father’s refusal to give it him reached such a pitch that Frederick appealed against the king to parliament, unsuccessfully, for a larger allowance. Born and brought up in Hanover, Frederick had arrived in England as a young man in 1728 after his father’s accession to the throne. Queen Caroline is reported as saying ‘Our first-born is the greatest ass, the greatest liar, the greatest canaille and the greatest beast in the world, and we heartily wish he was out of it’. The same could not be said of his own family and the hatred between the prince and his parents was a national scandal. In 1610 he was further invested as Prince of Wales and Earl of Chester, thus for the first time uniting the six automatic and two traditional Scottish and English titles held by heirs-apparent to the two thrones. Martin Wiggins & Catherine Teresa Richardson. Henry's chaplain, Daniel Price, delivered a series of sermons about the young man's death. His father, George, suggested that perhaps ‘Fretz might be a Wechselbag, or changeling’. © Copyright 2020 History Today Ltd. Company no. [2] James VI set a tax of £100,000 for the expenses. At Winchester, in September 1603, Anne of Denmark produced a masque to welcome her son, which was controversial. His son, the future George III, who was a teenager at the time, was genuinely unhappy when his father died. Henry died from typhoid fever at the age of 18, during the celebrations that led up to his sister Elizabeth's wedding. The history and origins of the game of cricket. English history records several members of its Royal family dying in peculiar circumstances. "[21] His body lay in state at St. James's Palace for four weeks. 1590, d. 1638)," Ian Payne in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, See online ed., ed. [13], The king greatly preferred the role of schoolmaster to that of father, and he wrote texts for the schooling of his children. Under the Act of Settlement passed by the English Parliament in 1701, Frederick was high in line of succession to the British throne. ‘Here lies Fred,’ as the anonymous contemporary epitaph had it, ‘Who was alive and is dead ... There’s no more to be said.’. [14], "Upright to the point of priggishness, he fined all who swore in his presence", according to Charles Carlton, a biographer of Charles I, who describes Henry as an "obdurate Protestant". Four years later Charles, by then 16 years old, was created Prince of Wales and Earl of Chester. Richard Cavendish … Miles Kerr-Peterson & Michael Pearce, 'James VI's English Subsidy and Danish Dowry Accounts'. However Frederick did not live to a grand old age, as he died in 1751. Frederick’s mother once famously described him as ‘the greatest ass and the greatest liar and the greatest canaille and the greatest beast in the whole world’, adding ‘and I heartily wish he were out of it. He said ‘I feel something here’ (putting his hand on his heart) ‘just as I did when I saw two workmen fall from the scaffold at Kew’. [12] In 1607 Henry sought permission to learn to swim, but the Earls of Suffolk and Shrewsbury wrote to Newton that swimming was a "dangerous thing" that their own sons might practice "like feathers as light as things of nought", but was not suitable for Princes as "things of great weight and consequence". Charles stamped on the cap and had to be dragged off in tears. She said ‘At last I shall have one comfort in having my eyes eternally closed, I shall never have to see that monster again’. His persistent political manoeuvering against his father’s principal minister, Sir Robert Walpole, was a major cause of offense. Relations between the two could be tense, and on occasion surfaced in public. The Irish Gaelic lord of Inishowen, Sir Cahir O'Doherty, had applied to gain a position as a courtier in the household of Henry, to help him in his struggles against officials in Ireland. An introduction to the British peerage, which has evolved over the centuries into the five ranks that exist today: duke…, The Order of the Garter – British order of chivalry, A full list of the Kings and Princes of Wales, including the English Princes of Wales. His German page, who was holding him, felt him tremble and cried out, ‘The prince is going.’ Frederick’s wife at the foot of the bed caught up a candle and ran to him, but he was dead. These poems were published in 1612 (see 1612 in poetry): These poems and songs were published in 1613 (see 1613 in poetry): In addition to the above verse-setting by Coperario, both Thomas Tomkins and Thomas Weelkes composed settings of "When David heard", a Biblical passage in which King David laments the loss of his son Absalom in battle; it is thought that both settings were directly inspired by the death of the prince. A keen games player, he was struck hard by a ball when playing cricket, or it may have been tennis, and the blow apparently caused an abscess.

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